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English as an additional language

English as a second language

English as a foreign language


ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) and EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers of other languages. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also used in relation to demographic information.


ELT (English language teaching) is a widely-used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The abbreviations TESL (teaching English as a second language), TESOL (teaching English for speakers of other languages) and TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language) are all also used.


Other terms used in this field include EAL (English as an additional language), ESD (English as a second dialect), EIL (English as an international language), ELF (English as a ­lingua franca), ESP (English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes), EAP (English for academic purposes), and ELL (English language learner).






Doctorate in Education


The Doctorate in Education (EdD) is an innovative programme designed for professionals in education and related areas who want to extend and deepen their knowledge and understanding of contemporary educational issues. It’s characterised by:


a professional orientation, and

a modular structure.






Education and Manpower Bureau


The Education department in Hong Kong.






English Schools Foundation


Committed to Hong Kong and to excellence in education, the English Schools Foundation (ESF) makes a vital contribution to Hong Kong's role as an international centre by providing high quality and cost-effective primary and secondary education through the English language.





English section of Foreign Language Teachers United


A list whose purpose is to concentrate more on teachers' pay and working conditions than on the teaching of grammar and other pedagogical issues - imoportant though they are.



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